General

Learn more about Iranian musical instruments

Iranian instruments

As you know, musical instruments are probably the oldest means of music production. Early humans, before having a line and tongue through their larynx, repeated the sounds of nature and blew into the trunk of empty trees. , Hollow bones or animal horns and shells of sea creatures made different and strong sounds and used those sounds to communicate, warn as well as create fear in the hearts of animals and the enemy, which over time and gradually these instruments It became the perfect instrument of today.

Therefore, after that, various types of percussion instruments have been introduced as musical instruments, and after all this, it can be said that wind instruments are more ancient. A piece of perforated bone from the Neanderthal period has been discovered as the oldest aerial structure.

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It is interesting to know that Iranian musical instruments and instruments are divided into two general parts: Iranian instrumental musical instruments and Iranian regional musical instruments. In the continuation of this section of wet culture and art, by introducing them, we will acquaint your dear audience with the world of music.

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Learn more about different types of Iranian instruments

As mentioned earlier, the instruments used in Iran are divided into two categories:

1- Instruments used in the music of Iran

2- Instruments used in Iranian instrumental music

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Types of instruments used in Iranian instrumental music

Taar

The string instrument consists of the following components:

Skin
Resonant bowl
Wire catcher
Claw
the base
Ear
Hands
detent
handle

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The string belongs to a stringed percussion instrument made of leather, wood, bone, metal and string and is about 95 cm long. To play music with this instrument, the musician sits the strings horizontally on the thighs of his feet and starts tapping the strings with the percussion in his hand.

This string is composed of 6 metal wires that normally the first and second wires are tuned together with the third and fourth wires and finally the 5th wire is sounded with the first and second wires and the sixth wire is one octave bass. The first and second wires are wet.

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sitar

The setar instrument also has string-like components, which are as follows:

handle
Page
Ear
Sin Gir
Resonant bowl
the base
Claw
Hands
detent

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Setar is also one of the stringed percussion instruments, which is made of metal, wood and nylon or string thread. You should know that before this setar was considered to belong to the tanbur family, but now it is closer to the tar instrument. To play this instrument, the musician places the setar on the thigh of the foot while sitting and moves the fingertips of the left hand in the direction of the handle on the hands.

Due to the light weight of the setar, it can also be played standing up. This instrument has four metal strings in different thicknesses. It has been heard that a setar-playing dervishes named Mushtaq Ali Shah added the fourth string of this instrument to it and musicians know the familiar name of the fourth string of this instrument as Mushtaq.

The setar sheet music with the cello key is the second line, and it goes without saying that the usual width of the setar sound is close to three octaves.

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Dulcimer

Santour instrument consists of components such as:

Page
detent
Wire catcher
Ear
Audio box
bridges
Vault and wire on the vault
Cook key

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The dulcimer instrument is from the string family of absolute percussion and in the shape of an isosceles trapezoid made of metal and wood. The instrument is played in a sitting position so that its large side is in front of the musician and horizontally is played by the musician with two wooden percussion instruments.

Strong woods such as betel and walnut are used in the construction of this dulcimer. Different types are defined for the dulcimer, but usually the common dulcimer has 9 cell tuners.

There are 72 strings on a dulcimer, with 36 yellow strings in groups of four on the 9 chambers on the right, and 36 other teams in white on the 9 chambers on the left in groups of four.

This instrument usually has a note more than three octaves wide and if the fourth position is used, this width will be even more. The centurion has 27 sounds in 3 positions and it is possible to write the note with the second line cello key.

Among the types of dulcimers, we can mention Lakuk dulcimer, chromatic dulcimer, ordinary cello dulcimer, bass dulcimer and also Bam chromatic dulcimer.

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Barbat (recurrence)

The components of the instrument include the following list:

Page
Vault and wire catcher
handle
detent
Claw
Bridge
Ear

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Barbat is another Iranian musical instrument which is called oud in Arabic. This instrument is one of the stringed percussion instruments, which is made of nylon or string, wood and bone. The oud is one of the oldest and most important instruments in Iran, which consists of 10 chords. be.

The connection is close to two octaves and its writing is done with the second line cell key and sometimes with the fourth line Fa key.

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flute

The material of this ancient wind instrument is a reed plant with a length of six knots and seven straps, that is why it is also called a seven-stringed reed. Changing the air pressure creates different sounds. The usual range of this famous instrument is about two and a half octaves.

The range of the reed is divided into four sound regions, which include the peak sound, the bass and lower bass sound, the ghast sound, and the ghast back sound. The second line cello is also responsible for writing the notes.

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Scissors instrument

The main components and components of the scythe instrument:

handle
Skin
Ear
Bowl
Claw
Wire catcher
detent
the base

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Another stringed instrument is the quill, which is one of the restrained bow instruments and is made of metal, wood and leather. The way of playing this instrument is similar to the fiddle instrument and it is used in the music of different parts of our country, Iran. It is approximately 56 cm long.The stitches of the third and fourth wires of the scissors can be changed in different positions, and the stitches of the ordinary scissors wires are in the form of descending fifths.

It has about 2 octaves of sound and due to the lack of handwriting, it can be played at all distances of Iranian national music. Alto and ordinary scissors are written by the second line cello key and open scissors by the fourth line Fa key.

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Law maker

The law maker consists of components such as:

Skin
Ear
Wire catcher
Bridge
Goofs
Revolving curtain
Cook key
the base
Page
detent

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The instrument of law is also one of those Iranian instruments of absolute percussion, which is in the form of a vertical trapezoid made of skin, wood, bone, metal and string. The method of playing this instrument by the musician is in a position where its larger side is on the musician’s table or foot and towards him, and it is played with two fingers of the left and right hands equipped with a percussion instrument.

Typically consists of coated silk or nylon, 82 strings made of gauze, which are used in the bam section of coated metal chords, and most of them in the bam part, single or double in groups of three in unison with each other They are tuned.

The sound of the law in Iran is approximately three octaves wide and its notation is done on two carriers. For almost one octave of bass sounds with the fourth line Fa key and the rest with the second line cello key.

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Daf, circle, bell circle

Daf components

Thumb
rings
stud
ricochet
Skin

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Another percussion instrument is called the daf, which is made using leather, wood, metal. Its body has a circular shape and an opening with a diameter of 60 cm. At certain intervals, metal rings are installed along the inner wall of the daf.

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Daf families

Circle: The circle is a type of chamber and smaller daf.

Bell circle: This circular instrument has a wooden buckle that has been created along the wall of the buckle and at close range, and small small gauges have been inserted inside them.

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fiddle

The main components of the fiddle:

Ear
the base
handle
Claw
the base
detent
Wire catcher
Resonant bowl
Skin

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The fiddle is also one of the Iranian musical instruments and belongs to the tied stringed bow instruments, which are made of bone, skin, wood and metal. Its length is approximately 75 cm from the metal base to the explicit. Playing this instrument in a sitting position and vertically in the left hand of the musician.

The fingers of the musician’s left hand move along the handle and with the bow with the right hand, the reciprocating movements on the strings are drawn horizontally. The fiddle consists of four metal wires of different thicknesses.

About 3 octaves is the usual width of this instrument. The fiddle is written with the cell key of the second line of the carrier and a curtain is written above the percussion instruments.

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Robab

Robab instrument components:

Skin
handle
chest
the base
Hands
Claw
Ear
detent
Wire catcher
Resonant bowl

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Rabab instrument also belongs to tied bowed string instruments which are made of leather, nylon thread or gutter and wood in making it. This instrument is one of the oldest instruments in Iran and Iranian musical instruments, which can be clearly seen in carvings and literature.

In some areas it is played like a string and a percussion, but in some areas it is played like a fiddle and a bow. This instrument consists of six main chords that are tuned in pairs with each other.

The usual sound range of this instrument is about 1 and a half octaves and its notation key has been introduced for the convenience of the second line cello key, but because the actual sound of one octave is lower than that, it is recommended to use the fourth line Fa key.

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Tonbak

Tonbak components:

Body
Nafir small opening
Large opening
Tombak or Tonbak is one of the most famous instruments of Iranian music. Another name for Tombak is Zarb and it is a percussion instrument. This instrument is made using maple, walnut, and mulberry wood in the form of a piece in two parts of the trunk (larger) and nafir (narrower) in various sizes. Most solo drums are in small sizes and orchestral drums are in larger sizes.

On the three-line carrier of Tombak writing, so that the central area of the skin is marked on the first line, the middle area on the second line and the side area of the skin on the third line, or sometimes it is done with carriers with different lines.

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The above articles that you read were the introduction of different types of Iranian string instruments that we have provided to you, art-loving audiences. We hope this article will be useful for music and music lovers.

You can contact the colleagues of music instruments in Iranian Art Holding for specialized repair and preparation of various valid instruments.

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